The decision in effect extended an order by a Trump-appointed Federal District Court judge, Trevor N. McFadden, which had blocked the Treasury Department from providing the tax returns to Congress while the Circuit Court considered the case.
What to Know About the Trump Investigations
Numerous inquiries. Since leaving office, former President Donald J. Trump has been facing several investigations into his business dealings and political activities. Here is a look at some notable cases:
Classified documents inquiry. The F.B.I. searched Mr. Trump’s Florida home as part of the Justice Department’s investigation into his handling of classified materials. The inquiry is focused on documents that Mr. Trump had brought with him to Mar-a-Lago, his private club and residence, when he left the White House.
Jan. 6 investigations. In a series of public hearings, the House select committee investigating the Jan. 6 attack laid out a comprehensive narrative of Mr. Trump’s efforts to overturn the 2020 election. This evidence could allow federal prosecutors, who are conducting a parallel criminal investigation, to indict Mr. Trump.
Georgia election interference case. Fani T. Willis, the Atlanta-area district attorney, has been leading a wide-ranging criminal investigation into the efforts of Mr. Trump and his allies to overturn his 2020 election loss in Georgia. This case could pose the most immediate legal peril for the former president and his associates.
New York State’s civil case. Letitia James, the New York attorney general, filed a lawsuit against Mr. Trump and his family business, accusing both of a sweeping pattern of fraudulent business practices. The yearslong investigation has been focused on whether Mr. Trump’s statements about the value of his assets were part of a pattern of fraud or simply Trumpian showmanship.
Manhattan criminal case. Alvin L. Bragg, the Manhattan district attorney, has been investigating whether Mr. Trump or his family business intentionally submitted false property values to potential lenders. While it appears Mr. Trump is unlikely to be indicted, the investigation has yielded criminal charges against the Trump Organization and a plea deal with its chief financial officer, Allen H. Weisselberg.
Judge McFadden had ruled — and the District of Columbia Circuit Court agreed — that the law gives the Ways and Means Committee the right to gain access to the returns. But the judge first sat on the case for nearly two and a half years before making his ruling, and the additional delay increases the chances that the House committee will run out of time to obtain them.
The case traces to the 2016 election, when Mr. Trump broke with modern precedent for presidential candidates — and, later, for sitting presidents — by refusing to make his returns public. After Democrats took over the House in 2019, they began trying to investigate his hidden finances.
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Representative Richard E. Neal, Democrat of Massachusetts and the chairman of the Ways and Means Committee, requested Mr. Trump’s tax returns, citing a federal law that gives his panel the authority to see any taxpayer’s documents. But the Trump administration refused to let the Treasury Department turn over the records.
In July 2019, the House filed a lawsuit seeking to enforce its request. But Judge McFadden delayed making any ruling, and that sessions of Congress expired. In 2021, Mr. Neal issued a renewed request for Mr. Trump’s tax returns from 2015 to 2020, saying the committee was studying a program that audits presidents.
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